суббота, 14 ноября 2009 г.


A History of All Nations
Volume XI
The ¬Age of The Reformation
¬Martin Philippson, Ph.D.
¬Formerly Professor of History in the Universities of Bonn and of Brussels,
¬Author Of "The Age Of Louis Xiv.', "History Of Prussia From ¬The Death Of Frederick The Great," "History Of ¬The Reign Of Mary Stuart," Etc.
¬ Translated Under The Supervision Of
¬John Henry Wright, Ll.D.
¬Professor of Greek In Harvard University And Dean Of The Oraduate School,
Editor-In-Chief of The "American Journal of Archaeology, Second Series"
¬ Volume XI
¬A History of All Nations
¬ Lea Brothers & Company
¬Philadelphia And New York
¬Volume XI
¬A History of All Nations

¬NEVER in the history of mankind did a child come into the world with the promise of a grander future than the boy Charles, who, on February 24, 1500, was born in Ghent to Philip of Austria and the Spanish Infanta Joanna. His parents were already lords of a great and rich domain — the seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands, then the most populous and prosperous country in the world, and the Free County of Burgundy (Franche-Comte). His probable inheritance from his grand-parents was much more brilliant. His father's father was the Emperor Maximilian I., who would leave him the German possessions of the House of Hapsburg and their claims to the imperial crown ; his mother's parents, Ferdinand and Isabella, were to give him the whole Spanish peninsula (with the exception of Portugal), as well as Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and the sovereignty over the limitless lands of the newly-discovered western continent. Thus one-half of the civilized World was one day to belong to this Charles ; he was to secure mastery of the world, and then fulfil the fond hopes of great power which had ever floated before the mind of Maximilian and his Hapsburg predecessors. Meanwhile, this future ruler of the world led a far sadder youth than falls to the share of most children. He never knew what tender parental care was. Before he was two years old his parents went to Spain to secure recognition by the Cortes of Castile and Aragon of their claim to the succession of the crown of those two countries. Philip returned to the Netherlands first, in 1503 ; Joanna remained a year longer in Spain, and gave birth to a second son, Ferdinand. There was little affection now between the husband and wife ; Philip, weary of his not very prepossessing wife, sought love adventures elsewhere ; while Joanna, who really loved her husband passionately, had her naturally gloomy spirit made more wretched by his faithlessness.
This ill-mated pair cared little for their eldest son, and in January, 1506, both left him again to go and take possession of the throne of Castile, left vacant by the death of Isabella the Catholic. The father never saw his son again, for Philip died suddenly on September 25, 1506, in his twenty-eighth year. Joanna was shut up in the royal castle of Tordesillas by her father Ferdinand, who declared to the world that she had gone insane from grief over her husband's death, but who in reality wished to secure the throne of Castile for himself. Charles was thus left practically an orphan. Though Charles became nominally ruler of the Netherlands, Emperor Maximilian, as his guardian, entrusted the government of these provinces to his daughter, Margaret of Austria, who was greatly loved in the Low Countries, and who had the care of her nephew's education. He was surrounded exclusively by Netherlanders. His chief tutor was William of Croy, lord of Chievres, an ambitious, but really inferior man, who sought to win his pupil's favor by obsequious affability. Adrian Floriszoon, a Louvain professor of moderate ability, who acted as private tutor, inspired the young prince with an ardent zeal for the Catholic faith in its purer form. History was a favorite study with Charles. In other branches, especially in Latin, he made but slow progress, and had no interest in scholastic pursuits. He had a much keener zest for the acquisition of knightly accomplishments, and, till ill-health interfered, was expert in tournaments, in dances, and even in bull-fighting. From his grandfather, Maximilian, Charles inherited also a passionate love for hunting. But what was most noteworthy was the grave and dignified earnestness which was early developed in his character. He always retained a grateful memory of his tutors, and, as he grew up, Chievres became his principal adviser. In 1515 he was formally declared of age. But the calm, circumspect, apparently unintellectual young Duke of Luxemburg, withered by a joyless youth, still continued after 1515 to leave the cares of government in the hands of Chievres and his other favorites. These, nearly all of French origin, drew him into the French party in European politics, and succeeded in fostering in him a violent hatred for his grandfather, Ferdinand, who was withholding from him his Castilian inheritance.
On the first day of January, 1515, Louis XII. of France suddenly died; an excellent and well-loved ruler, who, however, had been unfortunate in his foreign politics, having lost Naples to Spain, and Milan, to which he had claims, to yoimg Massimiliano Sforza. As he left no male heir, he was succeeded by his cousin and son-in-law, Francis of Angouleme, of the younger line of Valois-Orleans. Francis I. had many brilliant qualities ; he was ardent and ambitious, cultivated, fond of poetry and art, and in short, the most elegant cavalier in his kingdom. But these gifts could not atone for his great faults — an unbridled love of pleasure, gross immorality, and a despotic love of power. He lacked perseverance, and took no genuine interest in the welfare of his people. His mother, Louise of Savoy, by encouraging his vicious propensities, had obtained an overwhelming influence over him.
¬A prince like Francis I. (Fig. 11), ambitious and fond of glory, was naturally eager to repair the defeats suffered by French arms in the last two centuries. He first took up, therefore, the task already begun by his predecessor — the con(piest of Milan. In order to cover his rear ¬against the threatening hostility of old Ferdinand the Catholic, Francis was glad to make a friendly treaty with the government of the Netherlands (March, 1515).
¬The prospects of the young king of France were at this time most favorable. Ferdinand was unfit for vigorous action, on account of sickness and old age; Emperor Maximilian, as usual, was without funds; and Charles, the heir of both, was his friend. Francis had to deal, therefore, only with Massimiliano Sforza's mercenary troops, the Swiss. Against these he had an army of 70,000 men, among whom were $20,000 German foot, and GOOO German cavalry, together with 370 cannon. In addition, Venice had promised him assistance. At Marignano, near Milan, the decisive battle was fought. On the first day the Swiss, though numerically inferior, were successful ; un the following day (September 14, lölö), the struggle was renewed, when the Swiss .suddenly heard in their rear the cry " San Marco." The Venetians had come to help the Frent'h. The Swiss now retreated in good order, first to Milan, finally into Switzerland. The battle of Marignano had a stunning effect. Though the Venetians had decided the victory, the French assumed the whole glory of it. For the first time in two hundred years the Swiss had been defeated in the field. The charm of their invincibility was broken, and seemed to have passed over to their conquerors. Spanish and papal troops retreated, without a blow, into the States of the Church and Naples. Massimiliano Sforza capitulated, and was sent with a suitable retinue to France, where he spent fifteen years in retirement. The whole duchy of Milan fell into the hands of the French. Pope Leo X. went over to their side, with his relatives, the Medici of Florence. By the treaty of Viterbo, Francis confirmed to the pope the possession of the States of the Church, and to the Medici the sovereignty of Tuscany ; as a return, Leo conceded to the French king the duchy of Milan, Parma, and Piacenza. This secular agreement was followed by a religious one, the Concordat of 1 516 : in return for important pecuniary advantages, the pope agreed to leave the whole management of the Gallican church in the hands of the crown. Francis was thus triumphant on all points, and his fame in Europe unbounded.

Никогда в истории человечества не появлялся на свет ребенок с надеждами на более великое будущее, чем мальчик Карл, который 24 февраля 1500 года родился в Генте у Филиппа Австрийского и испанской Инфанты Хуаны. Его родители были уже владельцами большой и богатой области — семнадцати провинций Нидерландов, в то время самой густонаселенной и преуспевающей страны в мире, и Свободного Графства Бургундии (Франш-Конте). Потенциальное наследство от его бабушки и дедушки обещало быть ещё более замечательным. Его дедом по отцу был Император Максимилиан Первый, который мог оставить ему германские владения Дома Габсбургов и их претензии на императорскую корону; родители его матери, Фердинанд и Изабелла, должны были отдать ему целый испанский полуостров (за исключением Португалии), так же как Неаполь, Сицилию, Сардинию и власть над безграничными странами недавно обнаруженного западного континента. Таким образом, половина цивилизованного мира должна была однажды принадлежать этому Карлу; он должен был реализовать надежды на самую большую власть, которая когда-либо проносилась перед умственным взором Максимилиана и Габсбургов — его предков.
Между тем, этот будущий правитель мира вел намного более печальную жизнь, чем выпадает на долю большинства детей. Он никогда не знал, что такое родительская забота. Ему ещё не исполнилось двух лет, когда его родители отправились в Испанию, чтобы обеспечить признание кортесами Кастилии и Арагона их притязаний на наследование владения этими двумя странами. Филипп возвратился в Нидерланды первым в 1503; Хуана осталась ещё на год в Испании и родила второго сына, Фердинанда. Супруги были мало привязаны друг к другу; Филипп, равнодушный к своей не очень привлекательной жене, искал приключений на стороне; Хуана же, которая страстно любила мужа, уже от природы имела угрюмый характер, а неверность мужа угнетала ещё больше.

Эта пара плохо подходивших друг к другу людей мало заботилась о своём старшем сыне, и в январе 1506 года они оба оставили его снова, чтобы отправиться овладеть троном Кастилии, оставшимся свободным после смерти Изабеллы Католической. Отец никогда больше не видел своего сына, поскольку внезапно умер 25 сентября 1506 года на его двадцать восьмом году жизни. Хуана была заперта в королевском замке Тордесильяс своим отцом Фердинандом, который объявил, что она сошла с ума от печали по смерти мужа, но который в действительности желал получить трон Кастилии для себя. Таким образом, Карл остался фактически сиротой. Хотя Карл стал номинально правителем Нидерландов, император Максимилиан, как его опекун, поручил управление этими областями своей дочери Маргарите Австрийской, которую очень любили в Нидерландах и которая заботилась об образовании своего племянника. Он был окружен исключительно нидерландцами. Его главным наставником был Гийом де Круа, сеньор Шьевр, честолюбивый, но недалёкий человек, который заискивал перед своим учеником с подобострастием. Затем его наставником стал Адриан Флорисзоон, лувенский профессор умеренных способностей (будущий папа Адриан Шестой), который внушал молодому принцу горячее рвение к католической вере. Он был членом религиозного движения devotio moderna (современная набожность), которое содействовало распространению грамотности в массах. История была любимым предметом Карла. В других науках, особенно в латинском языке, он успевал не очень сильно и не имел никакого интереса к схоластическим исследованиям. Намного больше он был увлечен рыцарскими занятиями и, пока не стало помехой плохое здоровье, был искусен в турнирах, танцах и даже в бое быков. От дедушки Максимилиана Карл унаследовал также страстную любовь к охоте. Но что был самым примечательным, так это серьезная и величавая вдумчивость, которая рано развилась в его характере. Он всегда сохранял благодарную память о наставниках и, когда вырос, Шьевр стал его основным советником. В 1515 он был официально объявлен совершеннолетним. Но спокойный, осмотрительный, очевидно невежественный молодой герцог Люксембургский, изнурённый безрадостной юностью и после 1515 года предоставлял заботу об управлении в руках Шьевра и других фаворитов. Они, почти все французы по происхождению, затягивали его во французскую партию в европейской политике и преуспели в создании в нем сильной ненависти к его дедушке Фердинанду, который отказывал ему в наследовании Кастилии.

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